HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is a computer language that is used for creating web pages and web applications. Web browsers use this markup language to interpret and compose texts, images, and other materials into visual or audible web pages that can be seen by anyone connected to the internet. HTML was created by an English engineer Tim Berners-Lee, who is best known as the inventor of World Wide Web.
HTML 1.0 – A sole-dynamic language
The first version of this language, HTML 1.0 was designed as the sole-dynamic language that could be used to create the front-end of any web page. Tim Berners-Lee proposed the idea of HTML by writing a memo suggesting an Internet-based hypertext system in 1989. He specified HTML and drafted the browser and server software in late 1990. He then publicly described the language in the form of a published document called “HTML Tags” in 1991 which had 18 elements comprising the initial and relatively simple design of HTML. Eleven of these elements still exist in HTML 4.
HTML 2.0 – Standard for Website Design
In 1994, a computer scientist Dan Connolly created a new draft for the language using proper SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) and named it as ‘HTML 2.0.’ This new draft was then revamped and rewritten by Karen Muldrow in July 1994 and was finally published in November in 1995. The newer version included everything from the original 1.0 specifications with some added new features. It defined many core HTML features for the first time and was used as the standard language for the website design until January 1997.
HTML 3.2 – First version developed and standardized by World Wide Web Consortium
HTML 3.0 was a proposed version of HTML standard released after HTML 2.0 in March 1995 which offered many additional capabilities such as, tables, text flow around figures, display of complex math elements, and features for greater control of layout. The draft proposing HTML 3.0 expired, and it was superseded by HTML 3.2 which was further released in January 1997. HTML 3.2 had all the widely deployed features recommended in HTML 3.0 and provided full backward compatibility with the previous version.
HTML 4.01 – A large evolution of the HTML standards
HTML 4.01 was the last iteration of the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). The new features introduced in HTML 4.01 were the cascading style sheet, support for frames, enhancement for tables, and the ability to create richer forms and to control web page content at multiple levels. It also has the capability to manage pages so that they can be distributed in different languages. HTML 4.01 remains the set of markup on which most large websites are based today.
XHTML 1.0 – A reformulation of HTML 4 as XML 1.0
XHTML 1.0 (EXtensible HyperText Markup Language) is a reformulation of the three HTML 4 document types as applications of XML 1.0 published in May 2000. It was an entirely new branch of HTML, incorporating the rigorous of XML, so that code must be properly written. It was introduced to make HTML more extensible and increase interoperability with other data formats. Though a few things changed with a view of increased accessibility and functionality with XHTML 1.0, there weren’t many new or deprecated tags and attributes in it.
HTML5 – Latest evolution of the HTML standard
HTML5 is the fifth and the current version of Hypertext Markup Language that was published in October 2014. It was introduced to improve the language with support for the latest multimedia. This version of HTML is intended to subsume not only HTML 4, but also XHTML 1 and DOM Level 2 HTML. It includes new elements, attributes, behaviors, and a larger set of technologies that allow the creation of more diverse and powerful websites and applications.
So, this is how HTML has evolved exponentially over the last two decades. HTML5 is going to be rewritten soon, and HTML6 will eventually become the new standard. The web design story is a long and interesting one, and it will experience more transformations in the future. Hope this article helped you acquire knowledge about the markup language that brought internet into our lives!
John is a full-time academic writer at Instant Assignment Help. He aims to provide the best HTML assignment writing assistance and other academic writing services to the UK-based college-goers who face difficulty in completing their assignments. He is an avid blogger, a sports enthusiast, and an amateur nature photographer.